Throughout history, various types of archways have always been important architectural and structural components. Practically every country has its own version of these unique traits. Interior designers are rediscovering the elegance of arches as an interior feature in our living spaces again these days.
Let us understand how the different types of arches can be constructed in your houses to make them look more classy and modern.
What Are Arches?
An arch is a curving entrance in a building that is meant to transfer weight in architecture. Because they can sustain a big mass put on top of them, arches are utilized in structural engineering (a field of civil engineering that deals with massive buildings and similar structures). Arches can be seen over entrances and windows. They’re widely employed in bridge construction.
Arches dramatically emphasize the height of your walls, making any space appear larger. An arch automatically enhances a space, whether it’s in a hallway or a living room, and there are numerous brilliant design decisions you can make to improve this magnificent element stand out even more.
Classification Of The Different Types Of Arches In Houses
You can add different types of arches to your home. These include lancet arches, segmental arches, Venetian arches, brick arches, or concrete arches.
For better understanding, we have classified the different types of arches into the following categories.
- Types Of Arches According To Construction
- Types Of Arches According To Materials Used
- Types Of Arches According To Number Of Centres
Now let’s take a look at each of these types of arches under these categories.
Different Types Of Arches According To Construction
1. Flat Arch
The intrados of a flat arch is flat, at a 60° horizontal angle, and functions as the base of an equilateral triangle with the intrados. Even though the intrados is flat, tiny settlements are normally accommodated by a minor increase in camber of around 10-15mm per metric width of the aperture. Extrados are straight and flat arches, in general, are often employed for lightweights and spans of up to 11 inches.
A flat arch is the weakest type of arch and is commonly used in the building of lightweight constructions.
2. Horseshoe Shape Arch
The horseshoe shape arch is named so because of its form, which resembles a horseshoe and curves more than a semicircle. It’s most commonly used for architectural purposes.
Horseshoe arches come in three varieties:
- Regular horseshoe arch
- Pointed horseshoe arch
- Rounded horseshoe arch
3. Pointed Shape Arch
The pointed-shaped arches are also known as gothic arches. Two arcs of the circle meet at the tip of the pointed shape arch, forming a triangle.
Triangle components might be isosceles or equilateral.
4. Relieving Arch
The primary goal of the relieving arch is to provide more support. The concrete elements should be sufficiently absorbed into the endpoints of this arch.
When it comes to relieving the arch, we may quickly repair the deteriorated wooden lintel without harming the arch or the structure’s integrity.
To offer extra strength, these types of arches are built on a wooden lintel or atop a flat arch. You may easily replace a decaying wooden lintel with these arches without affecting the structure’s stability.
5. Segmental Arch
A segmented arch is one with a circular arc that is less than 180 degrees. A Syrian arch is one of the most well-known types of arches. The segmental arch is one of the most durable types of arches, capable of withstanding significant thrust.
The segmental arch was initially created by the Romans. During the twentieth century, this form of purchase was commonly used in the building of residential windows and doors.
The typical form of arch used for structures is the segmental arch, which has the center of the arch under the springing line. The force is transferred in an inclined direction to the abutment in the segmental arch.
6. Semi-Circular Arch
The thrust is carried to the supports in a vertical direction in this form of an arch, which resembles a semi-circle. This occurs because the skewback in this arch is horizontal. It also has a point in the middle that is exactly on the springing line.
The semi-circular arch, also known as the Roman arch, creates a half-circle and is termed a Roman arch as it is a common element of all styles of Roman architecture. It’s a sturdy construction that’s common in aqueducts and bridges, and it looks to be simple to build because each voussoir has the same taper as the one next to it.
7. Semi-Elliptical Arch
The semi-elliptical types of arches are shaped like a semi-ellipse with three or five centers. The basket-handle arch is another term for the semi-elliptical arch.
8. Stilted Arch
A stilted arch is made up of two vertical parts at the springings of a semi-circular arch. The horizontal line that runs across the tops of the vertical parts is the centroid. The springing line is a substantial distance above the impost in a stilted arch and the space between is filled by a vertical molded or decorative element that is an extension of the intrados, archivolt, and so on.
9. Triangular Arch
The triangle arch, also known as a Mayan arch, is made up of two extremely huge diagonal stones that support each other to span an entrance. It’s also known as a miter arch.
10. Venetian Arch
A three-centered arch is exemplified by the Venetian brick arch. It’s also known as a Queen Anne arch, and it’s a classic style with a poor structural foundation.
These types of ornamental arches are usually supported by architectural window posts or brick pillars at the intersection of horizontal and semi-circular portions.
This design may be specified with certainty and requires no extra support thanks to our completely bonded structural block arch system.
Different Types Of Arches According To Materials Used
11. Brick Arches
Brick arches are among the most commonly used forms of arches in buildings. This is a form of an arch that was created with traditional bricks. The brick arches are constructed with cement mortar.
There are four different types of brick arches:
- Gauged Brick Arches
These types of brick arches use a wire saw to cut the bricks to the specific width and length of the needed voussoir. All bricks are properly prepared, and lime putty is used to unite them. The only bricks used in gauged brick arches are soft bricks.
- Axed Brick Arches
These arches are made by cutting the bricks into wedges and guiding them with a brick axe. As a result, the arches are clothed in a haphazard manner in terms of size and shape. However, constructing an arch out of these axed bricks isn’t always a pleasurable experience.
- Rough Brick Arches
Made of regular bricks without being carved into the shape of voussoirs, this type of arch is made by making wedge-shaped joints with a higher thickness at extrados and a lesser thickness at intrados. Rough brick arches are typically not particularly appealing as a result of these factors, which is one of the many reasons it is never suggested for exposed brick constructions.
- Purpose-Made Brick Arches
These types of brick arches were created specifically for the voussoirs. In these arches, the bricks are produced to match the precise size and shape of the wedge. The purpose-made brick arches necessitate extremely exquisite craftsmanship.
12. Concrete Arches
Large arches, such as those that support interstate overpasses, are made of concrete. Because of the high-strength concrete and the steel reinforcement that runs through it, they can hold massive spans. The concrete must be shaped around the rebar and then left to cure for about a month. The end result is a stunning arch.
Concrete blocks are of two variants:
- Precast Concrete Block Arches
Precast concrete blocks are used to construct these sorts of arches. The precast concrete slabs are accessible in the precise shapes and sizes required for the arches’ construction.
For the production of the precast concrete slab arches, a certain type of mold is constructed in accordance with the keystone criteria.
The 1:2:4 ratio is used in the making of precast concrete blocks. It will give a really nice view due to the precise size and shape of the precast concrete blocks.
- Monolithic Concrete Block Arches
Monolithic concrete block arches are made of cast-in-situ concrete and are appropriate for longer spans. Depending on the span and the degree of the weight, they can be reinforced or plain. Formwork is utilized to cast the arch. It is critical to curing the monolithic concrete block for 14 to 28 days.
13. Stone Arches
Stone arches are commonly seen in both stone and brick constructions and are used to cover door and window entrances, as well as porches. They’re also used to build highway and railroad bridges and canals across waterways and highways. Long-span stone arches are no longer as common as they once were, with iron and steel having mostly replaced stone.
- Ashlar Arches
The stones are cut to the appropriate shape, which is wedge-shaped or flattened; in other words, they are in the shape of voussoirs. They’re thoroughly polished and bonded with cement mortar, and flat arches are made using Ashlar stones as well.
- Rubble Arches
Rubble arches are used to construct arches with a span of up to one meter. Rubber stones that have been hammered and treated are used to make these sorts of spans. These types of arches are unsteady and are usually reserved for low-quality work. The mortar is used to hold stones together.
Different Types Of Arches According To Number Of Centres
14. One Centered Arch
There is just one specific center in one-centered arches. In certain circumstances, a totally circular arch is provided for circular windows, and this is known as a bull’s eye arch.
Flat arches, Semicircular arches, segmental arches, and horseshoe arches are examples of types of arches that fall within the classification of types of arches.
15. Two Centered Arches
Arches with two centers are known as two-centered arches. The subcategory of two centered arches includes pointed arches, gothic arches, and lancet arches. Semi-elliptical arches are also included in this category.
16. Three Centered Arches
Oval outlines, ellipses, and intricate shapes can be formed by an arch with more than three centers. They’re not as prevalent as they once were, but they’re still required for period restorations and other related undertakings. A three-centered arch, like semi-circular and Gothic arches, may require additional support for the whole thickness of the wall, including the inner leaf. Solid wall lintels or a hollow wall may also be required.
17. Four Centered Arches
There are four centers in these sorts of arches. Venetian arches are classified as four-center arches since they contain a total of four centers. Tudor also falls within this group.
18. Five Centered Arches
The five center arches have five centers, which allows for a good semi-elliptical form.
19. Elliptical Arch
Elliptical arches make up an elliptical curve, which is often not a real ellipse but rather a collection of circular arcs with three or five centers. This means that it has the form of a half-ellipse.
20. Equilateral Pointed Arch
This arch, often known as a pointed arch, is Gothic in design. Because two arcs of circles intersect at the apex, a triangle is produced. The triangle can even be isosceles, in addition to equilateral.
21. Lancet Arch
Lancet Arch is a spear-like arch that has two equal-radius centers. An acute arch, a pointed arch, or an ogive are all terms for the curving surface that produces two center points.
22. Venetian Arch
The crown of the Venetian arch is deeper than the crown of the springing arch. It is made up of four centers, each of which is placed on the spring line. In other words, during the peak, the band is broader than it is in the spring.
Closing Thoughts: Why Use Arches In Interior Designing?
The different types of arches aid in the definition of big spaces without fully obliterating the link between them. As a result, we can sense the boundaries of each place while still obtaining the impression that they combine to form a broader environment.
Arches may be found in a variety of places, including wall niches, entrances, doorways, and furniture. In addition, the use of bold colors that give juxtaposition to the design will serve to highlight the arches, which gives the area a unique character.