Land Measurement Units In India: Standard Measurement Units & Land Conversion Table
Land measurement units in India are not standardized and differ greatly in name and in definition from state to state. While North India typically uses measurement units like Bigha, Biswa, Marla, and Kanal, South India alternatively uses measurement units like Ground, Cent, Ankanam, and Guntha.
Since it is just different names in different regions of the country, it should not be a big deal- is that what you are thinking right now? We thought so too. The confusion, however, arises because of the fact that the defined sizes of units like Bigha, Biswa, and Katha also vary from one place to another,
It is true that the government and regulating bodies are increasingly trying to have even small states and villages incorporate the use of standard units such as Square Feet, Square Yards, Square Meters, Acres, and Hectares, the progress is slow and it will take quite some more time before these units are put in use.
This guide here, however, is all you will need to understand multiple land measurement units used across India. To make things clearer, we have also further included an area conversion table & length conversion table for better understanding.
Plot Versus Ground
The term “plot” refers to a piece of land whereas the term “ground” refers to a piece of land that is 2400 sq feet. The land will be be documented as layouts which will give you the measurements. Here’s a list of some of the typical land measurement units:
Unit of Area |
Conversion Unit |
1 square feet (sq. ft.) |
144 sqaure inches = 1 feet 12 inches |
1 square centimeters |
0.00107639 sq ft |
1 square inch |
0.0069444 sq ft |
1 square kilometer (sq km) |
247.1 acres |
1 square meter (sq m) |
10.76391042 sq ft |
1 square mile |
640 acres or 259 hectacres |
1 square yard (sq yd) |
9 sq ft |
1 acre |
4840 sq yd = 100 cents |
1 hectacre |
10000 sq m = 2.49 acres |
Area Conversion Table for Land Measurement Units in India: Listed in An Alphabetical Order (From A-Z)
Area Unit (as locally referred to) | Area Conversion Factor | Notable Remarks |
1 Ankanam | 72 sq ft | 1 Acre is equal to 605 Ankanams. Unit used in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. |
1 Acre | 4840 sq yd | Standard Unit to measure land, used in India and internationally. |
1 Are | 100 sq mtr | 1 hectare is equal to 100 acres. |
1 Bigha – Assam/ Bengal | 1600 sq yd | Bigha size in Assam and Bengal. |
1 Bigha – Pucca (Bihar/ UP-I/ Rajasthan-I/ Punjab-I/ Haryana-I) | 3025 sq yd | Pucca Bigha is measured by Shahjahani Jarib of length 165 ft. 1 Pucca Bigha = 165 ft X 165ft. Used in Bihar and parts of UP, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. |
1 Bigha (Gujarat/ Rajasthan-II) | 1936 sq yd | Bigha size is used in Gujarat and some parts of Rajasthan. It is measured by Gantari Jarib of length 132 ft. 1 Bigha = 132 ft X 132 ft. |
1 Bigha (HP-I/ Uttarakhand-I) | 968 sq yd | Bigha size is used in parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. |
1 Bigha (HP-II/ Uttarakhand-II) | 900 sq yd | Bigha size is used in parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. |
1 Bigha (MP) | 1333.33 sq yd | Bigha size is used in parts of Madhya Pradesh. |
1 Bigha- Kachha (Punjab-II/ Haryana-II/ UP-II) | 1008.33 sq yd | Kachha Bigha is one-third of Pucca Bigha. Used in parts of Punjab, Haryana & U.P. where settlement (bandobast/ chakbandi) has not happened. |
1 Biswa – Pucca (UP-IN/ Rajasthan-I/ Punjab-I/ Haryana-I) | 151.25 sq yd | 1/20 Bigha (Pucca) |
1 Biswa – Rajasthan II | 96.8 sq yd | 1/20 Bigha (Rajasthan-II) |
1 Biswa (HP-I/ Uttarakhand-I) | 48.4 sq yd | 1/20 Bigha (HP-I/ UK-I) |
1 Biswa (HP-II/ Uttarakhand-II) | 45 sq yd | 1/20 Bigha (HP-II/ UK-II) |
1 Biswa (Kaccha) – (Punjab-II/ Haryana-II/ UP-II) | 50.417 sq yd | 1/20 Bigha (Kaccha). |
1 Biswansi | 1/20 Biswa | 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis. Unit used in UP, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Each state has a different value for Biswansi depending on the value of Biswa/ Bigha used. |
1 Centiare | 1 sq mtr | 1 Are is equal to 100 Centiares. |
1 Cent | 435.6 sq ft | 1 Acre is equal to 100 cents. Unit used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. |
1 Chatak | 180 sq ft | Unit used in West Bengal. 1 Katha (Bengal) is equal to 16 chataks. |
1 Decimal | 48.4 sq yd | 1 Acre is equal to 100 Decimals. Unit used in West Bengal. |
1 Dhur (Bihar/ Jharkhand) | 68.0625 sq ft | 1 Kattha (Bihar) has 20 Dhurs. |
1 Dhur (Tripura) | 3.6 sq ft | 20 Dhurs (Tripura) is equal to 1 Kranta. |
1 Ghumaon | 4840 sq yd | An Acre is also known as Ghumaon in some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. |
1 Ground | 2400 sq ft | Unit used in parts of Tamil Nadu. |
1 Guntha | 1089 sq ft | Unit used in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka & Maharashtra. Measured as 33ft X 33 ft. 40 Guntas equal 1 Acre. |
1 Hectare | 10000 sq mtr | An international unit to measure land, 1 hectare is equal to 100 acres or 10,000 sq mtr or 2.47 acres approximately. |
1 Kanal | 5445 sq ft | 8 kanals is 1 acre. Unit used in Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. |
1 Kattha (Assam) | 2880 sq ft | 1 Bigha (Assam) is 5 Kathas (Assam). |
1 Kattha (Bengal) | 720 sq ft | 1 Bigha (Bengal) has 20 Kathas. |
1 Kattha (Bihar) | 1361.25 sq ft | 1 Bigha (Bihar) has 20 Kathas. |
1 Kattha (MP) | 600 sq ft | 1 Bigha (MP) has 20 Kathas. |
1 Killa | 4840 sq yd | An Acre is also known as Killa in some parts of Haryana and Punjab. |
1 Kranta | 72 sq ft | 1 Acre is equal to 605 Krantas. Unit used in Tripura. |
1 Kuncham | 484 sq yd | 1 Kuncham is equal to 10 cents. Unit used in Andhra Pradesh. |
1 Lecha | 144 sq ft | 20 Lechas is 1 Kattha (Assam). |
1 Marla | 272.25 sq ft | 20 marlas is 1 kanal. Unit used in Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. |
1 Murabba | 25 acres | 1 Murabba is 25 acres. Unit sometimes used in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. |
1 Nalli | 240 sq yd | 1 Nali is 240 sq yd. Unit used in Uttarakhand. |
1 Perch | 272.25 sq ft | 1 Square Perch is equal to a square rod, 30.25 sq yds or 1/160th acre. |
1 Rood | 10890 sq ft | 1 Rood is 1/4 of an acre. 40 square perches is equal to 1 Rood. |
1 Sarsahi (Square Karam) | 30.25 sq ft | Measured as 1 karam X 1 karam (66in X 66in). 1 Marla has 9 Sarsahies. Unit sometimes used in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. |
1 Shatak | 435.6 sq ft | 1 Acre has 100 Sharks. |
1 Square Centimeters | 0.00107639 sq ft | 1 Square Metres is 10000 Square Centimetres. |
1 Square Feet | 144 sq in | 1 feet is 12 inches. |
1 Square Inch | 0.0069444 sq ft | 1 feet is 12 inches. |
1 Square Kilometer | 247.1 acres | Standard International Unit of area to measure land. 1 Sq km is 0.3861 Sq Miles, 100 Hectares, 247.1 Acres or 1000000 Sq Mtr. |
1 Square Meter | 10.76391042 sq ft | Standard International Unit of area to measure land. 1 Sq Mtr is |
1 Square Mile | 640 acres | 1 Sq Mile is 2.59 Sq Km, 259 Hectares or 640 Acres. |
1 Square Yard | 9 sq ft. | 1 sq yd is 9 sq ft, measured as 3 ft X 3 ft. Also known as “Gaj” in India. |
How to Find The Area of Your Property?
The bifurcation of the land into residential plots is done after demarcating the area required for markets, hospitals, schools, parks roads, and other amenities. The seze and the number of the plot can be derived from the the sketch of the land layout. The layout details of a resale property can be found in the sale deed. In case of a residential property, the area and other layout details are given in the form of square feet (sq ft). For agricultural properties, the area will be mentioned in terms of hectares or acres. To measure the size of your land, you need to multiply the width and length of available land.
Few Final Thoughts: Units of Land Measurement
We hope that our conversion table and the explanation of the conversion of indigenous land measurement units used in India help you understand the system better. If you have any confusion, do not hesitate to leave a comment in the section below and we’ll help you as much as we can!
FAQs: Land Measurement Units In India
1. What is the standard unit of measuring land in India?
Multiple measurement units are used in India as official land measurement units in India. Bigha, Biswa, Marla, and Kanal are most commonly used in the Northern part of India, whereas, South India alternatively uses measurement units like Ground, Cent, Ankanam, and Guntha.
2. What is Bigha in land measurement?
Bigha is a land measurement unit commonly used in India and Bangladesh alike. One Bigha is equivalent to 1,600 square yards as standardized in pre-partition Bengal. In India, however, the measurement of Bigha varies from one state to another. While 1 Acre= 5 Bighas in Himachal Pradesh, 1 Acre is considered 4 Bighas in Punjab and Haryana.
3. What are Globally accepted land measurement units?
Globally accepted land measurement units are Square feet (sq ft), Square yard, Square meter (sq m), Acre, and Hectare.
4. How is land area measured in villages in India?
In India, apart from the common local units like Bigha, Gingham, Biswa, Guntha, and Kanal, the land is measured in terms of a hectare. It should be noted that 1 hectare = the area of a square with one side measuring 100 meters.